A-   How is it made?

Phytonutrient Canada (PC) Urinary Formula is a mix of a 100% pure extracts of wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) to which we have added a high concentration of cranberry macrocarpon products and Quebec maple syrup. BMC Urinary Formula is 100% natural, no added sugar, no preservatives.  PC urinary formula has a pleasant taste and is available in aluminum bottles of 300 ml. PC Urinary Formula (liquid) is a natural health product approved by Health Canada. (NPN80068900).
Phytonutrient Canada Urinary Formula is the result of an extensive academic research program. The recommended daily dosage is 10 ml (2 teaspoons) per day. Each bottle contains the dosage for one month of use.


Its health claims allowed by Health Canada are:

  •   Used in herbal medicine to reduce urinary tract infections
  •   Source of antioxidants for maintaining good health



B- Cystitis / bladder infections in women

It is estimated that 40% to 50% of women will suffer from bacterial cystitis (inflammation and infection of the bladder) at least one time in their live. Of this 40% to 50%, 20% to 30% will be reached at least twice a yearurinary-tract-infection-shema or even more. Men are also affected, but much less. Antibiotics are effective drugs but they often have side effects. They can be costly and may cause the emergence of resistant organisms. It is therefore recommended the consumption of cranberry macrocarpon for preventive purposes and as adjunctive treatment of urinary tract infections.

Recurrent cystitis is indeed a challenge for physicians and health experts because in many cases, they justify the use of antibiotics for prolonged periods and that antibiotic bacterial resistance phenomena are becoming more frequent. This can lead to toxic side effects such as hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in the elderly. Apart from hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions, a dangerous complication of antibiotic therapy is the Steven Johnson syndrome or SJS, a hypersensitivity complex involving the skin and mucous membranes resulting from the use of penicillin and sulfonamides.

All these toxic effects of antibiotics have led experts to study other ways on how to prevent and treat recurrent urinary tract infections. The most natural way identified to date is the consumption of cranberry macrocarpon and other small berries such as wild blueberries that are particularly rich in proanthocyanidins, this active phytonutrients (phyto-antioxidant) for the prevention of recurrent cystitis.



C- How and why the PC Urinary Formula is effective

against urinary tract infections (Cystitis)?

e-coli-bacteriaIt was long believed that the origin of the protection against cystitis by the cranberry juice was the acidification of the urine by the latter. It was believed that cranberry urine made urine so much acid that the bacteria causing the majority of urinary tract infections could no longer grow and or survive. This approach was deemed flawed and further researches have revealed a much more complex mechanism than the acidification of urine.

It is now recognized that the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (U.T.I.) and that it produces components called adhesins that allow it to adhere to the tissue walls of the urinary tract. The scientific community in general now believe that consumption of cranberry causes excretion in the urine of relatively large amounts of hippuric acid (bacteriostatic) and that cranberry would contain anti-adhesin. These anti-adhesins prevent bacteria from attaching to the walls of the bladder and urethra, so that they are excreted during urination. This last explanation is generally favored today.


D- Are the cranberry-based treatments easy to


jus cannebergeAlthough effective to prevent these infections, treatment without antibiotics requires the absorption of a large quantity of cranberry (whole fruit or juice) that few people are willing to do.

Industrial juice and sweetened cranberry cocktails are judged best in taste but they are greatly diluted and contain large amounts of sugar, dyes and other additives. Dilution produces cranberry increases the daily amount to ingest. Even with 100% pure juice, these therapies still require a significant consumption of pure cranberry products (whole fruit or 100% pure juice) and that, on an ongoing basis.  In the case of pure cranberry juice and fresh or frozen whole fruit, although effective these treatments are mostly quickly abandoned. Cranberries are extremely rich in vitamin C, moderately rich in vitamin A and have a relatively high fiber, proanthocianins and anthocianins content, all components that promote good health.  Preliminary results of tests carried out by researchers from the University of Wisconsin shows that cranberry juice has also have an antioxidant effect on the clogged arteries, thereby preventing cardiovascular disease. Finally, cranberry deodorized the urinary.


E- What is the benefit of the PC Urinary Formula

The major concentration of cranberry macrocarpon product that is in the PC Urinary Formula helps to protect against urinary tract infection with a recommended daily dosage of only 10 ml / 2 teaspoons per day.   In addition, the product has good taste.


F- Bacterial cystitis vs. Interstitial cystitis

The common cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder that is caused most often by the E-coli bacteria and has to be treated in severe cases with antibiotics. Interstitial cystitis is a chronic disease. It lasts over time. Although the two diseases have many symptoms in common, there should be no mixing up because the severity of interstitial cystitis is much higher than that of bacterial cystitis with known causes and treatments. We do not yet know the causes of interstitial cystitis which has long been regarded as psychogenic or even hysterical.

laboratoire recherchesInterstitial cystitis is inflammatory but non-infectious. Although the disease symptoms are similar, the latter is far more disabling. In the most severe cases, the person may have to urinate every 15 minutes, day and night. This almost constant need is caused by the pain becoming unbearable and the person is relieved by urinating. Sex in turn becomes difficult if not impossible. The disease is not constant and evolves through alternating attack and remission.

There is no diagnostic test for interstitial cystitis. To diagnose it, Doctors goes by elimination. It is first ensured that the pain is not caused by other pathologies such a bladder stone. When all pathologies providing the same symptoms are discarded, it evokes interstitial cystitis. The most accepted theory behind that sickness is the alteration of the bladder wall that would become permeable to toxic substances in the urine. Other theories lean more on neurological, allergic or genetic, but nothing is clearly demonstrated.  Many researchers believe that interstitial cystitis would combine several diseases whose causes are multiple.

Treatments against interstitial cystitis are experimental. Their goal is to reduce the intensity of symptoms and impact on quality of life of people having this serious disease. If anyone can be affected, 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis are women. The disease occurs mainly on people between 30 and 40 years, and 25% of patients are under 30 years old. The disease seems more important in Western and the Nordic countries. In the US, one in 1500 would be reached. It is important to remember that every patient is different.  Only the doctor or healthcare professional can give individualized and tailored information.

To our knowledge, our PC Formula Urinary can do nothing against the interstitial cystitis


G – Why did we use maple syrup to give a good flavor

to our PC Urinary Formula?

All sweeteners are not created equal.  The use of maple syrup instead of white sugar or corn syrup is very expensive but in addition to give the Urinary Formula a pleasant taste, the phenolic compounds contained in maple syrup are very synergistic to cranberry (proanthocyanes) and to wild blueberry (anthocyanins). Researchers at the University of Rhode Islands led by Dr. Navindra Seeram, discovered in syrup and maple sap 54 components including several very beneficial antioxidants for health and acting particularly on the reduction of oxidative stress.  Of these 54 components, 5 had never been discovered.  It was given the name quebecol (in honor of Quebec) in one of these very promising polyphenols. Identified maple’s antioxidants have anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and also anti-diabetes potency.  According to Dr. Seeram, few or no other natural sweeteners have such a cocktail of antioxidants beneficial to human health. Researchers found in maple syrup some of the beneficial Maple syrupcompounds found in berries, in tea and also in flaxseed. Dr. Seeram adds that people do not realize that we have a wide variety of fruits and vegetables in our food chain but maple syrup is the only mass consumption product that is obtained entirely from the sap of a tree.

A study conducted by researchers from McGill University in 2015 has also shown that a concentrate of maple syrup makes bacteria more vulnerable to antibiotics and thus reduce the quantities to be administered. Maple sap and maple syrup also contain significant amounts of terpenes. Abscisic acid stimulates the release of insulin from pancreatic cells and thus increases the sensitivity of adipose cells to insulin. Combined with the fact that the maple syrup provides an interesting contribution of manganese, riboflavin, zinc, magnesium, calcium and potassium, it has a high edge over any other additions of common sweeteners like white sugar, brown sugar and corn syrup. Just like blueberries and cranberries, maple syrup is part of the super foods.


Bicycle de sportif 3

Maple syrup is also recommended for athletes because it is a natural source of energy.  Maple syrup’s carbohydrates very easily metabolize glucose.  Glucose acts as fuel during exercise.  Moreover, maple syrup contains manganese and zinc which are two mineral involved in muscle recovery. Finally, it potassium contain helps balance bodily fluids involved in muscle contraction. Consumed before a workout, it helps maintain a high energy level. Ingested after the workout, maple syrup helps the body recover by renewing reserves of glycogen.

According to Dr. André Marette, Scientific Director of INAF, who is also a researcher at the Institute of Cardiology and Pneumology of Quebec, maple syrup has another big advantage over all other sweeteners: it consists essentially of sucrose and does not contain pure fructose which is rapidly captured by the liver.  “A high fructose source can lead to fat accumulation in the liver, called fatty liver.  Maple syrup has a low glycemic index and its ingestion leads to a smaller rise in the glucose concentration in the blood compared with honey, corn syrup and molasses

Maple syrup still contains some fructose that when metabolized, splits into a fructose and glucose molecules, but it is very little compared to other sweeteners commonly used in industrial consumer products.  It is therefore very important to know that the idea is not to add maple syrup to the usual diet, but to replace commonly used in diet sugar.

Maple syrup is a North America product that is mostly found in the Province of Quebec, Canada.


H- Cranberries and wild blueberries, two allies in the

fight against periodontal disease

periodontal 2The more they search and the more they find.  Scientists found that periodontal disease as recurrent cystitis would also be the case of proanthocyanidins.  Researchers from Oral Biology Eastman Center Dentistry, a department of University of Rochester Medical Center, found that proanthocyanidins and other polyphenols content in cranberries that help prevent urinary tract infections can also help prevent bacteria from binding to the teeth and thus be beneficial in the prevention of periodontal diseases.

A study by researchers Dr. Daniel Grenier (GREB, dentistry) and Dr. Yves Desjardins (INAF) in collaboration with Dr. Stephanie Dudonné (INAF) and Dr. Amel Ben Lagha, reflects the effectiveness of wild blueberries extracts rich in polyphenols on periodontal disease.  As with the cranberry acting with the E-coli bacterium, polyphenol content of blueberries decrease to the ability of the bacterium involved in these diseases to attack oral tissues by blocking cell responsible for inflammatory reactions.  The results of the study were published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. This discovery could allow dentists to replace antibiotics by gels and dressings which would incorporate bioactive extracts of blueberry compound. They could also be incorporated into a gum or mouthwash for preventive use.


H.1  Antioxidants also protect your skin

DEPLIANT_ANGLAISAdd great-looking skin to the list of benefits that antioxidants can provide.  You probably already know the three surest ways to ensure youthful skin: protect your skin from the sun, don’t smoke, and eat a healthy diet.  Incorporating the right antioxidants into your diet and skin care routine can have a positive effect on your skin.  Antioxidants do this by slowing or preventing the effect of free radicals, which start oxidation, a process  that causes damage from oxygen and can lead to cell dysfunction.  If you’ve seen a peeled apple turn brown, you’ve seen oxidation in action.  As antioxidants block the effects of free radicals, they end up being oxidized.

This is why it’s important to constantly replenish your supply of antioxidants.  A diet rich in antioxidants may improve the quality of the skin.  Skin water content and fat levels increase (the more the better in the skin).  The antioxidants lutein, alpha lipoic acid, vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and polyphenols improve the skin, whether they are eaten or applied in cream form.  When the antioxidant vitamins C and E are included in the diet, there is less sun damage after ultraviolet light exposure. Of course, for the antioxidants to help the heart, brain, eyes, and other organs, they must be eaten.


I- PC Urinary Formula is also a remarkable


PC Urinary Formula is composed of three foods full of antioxidants that are considered as super foods. The wild blueberry and cranberry macrocarpon are among the most studied foods in the world for their medicinal capacities.  Scientists have discovered that anthocyanins contained in wild blueberries and cranberry had the ability to remove at least part of the free radicals that are the basis of oxidative stress. Its consumption reduces the risk of cancer, heart disease, degenerative ones such as Parkinson and Alzheimer and also diseases that affect vision.  Wild blueberry may even increase night vision.  It is the same for cranberry and effectiveness of pro-anthocyanins to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections but also many other diseases.synergy

As the phenolic composition of those fruits is quite similar and complementary, it was also discovered that wild blueberry is also effective in reducing urinary tract infections and that cranberry consumption reduces the risk of cancer and every other sickness that wild blueberry help to avoid.  This is explained by the presence of anthocyanins and pro-anthocyanidins in both fruits but at a different concentration level. Many others very potent polyphenols are also founded in both fruits.  The situation is similar with cranberry and its capacity to lower the risks of heart disease, cancer and degenerative diseases such Alzheimer’s and Parkinson. Cranberries contain of pro anthocyanidins is simply outstanding but cranberry also contain a very high concentration of anthocyanins. The same is also true with wild blueberry.

By amalgamating the two fruits and adding maple syrup as we have done with the PC Formula Urinary, we have created synergy.


I- 1  Oxidative stress and its effects on health

Oxidative stress seems to be one of the central mechanisms of the pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease and many other chronic diseases.  Oxygen is essential to our survival, but its use by body cells is not without danger.  A significant portion (1-2%) of the oxygen we breathe is transformed into toxic compounds called free radicals (1) . Antioxidant cartoon The free radicals can react and damage cellular components such as proteins, lipids and DNA (2 ). The oxidation of biomolecules by free radicals is involved in several pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases (arteriosclerosis), degenerative neuros diseases (Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s), cancer and aging (3-7).

Antioxidants are biological substances in foods that have a role of preventing oxidation reactions caused by free radicals.  By definition, this is a low concentration substance compared to the oxidizable substrate, able to delay or stop the oxidation of the substrate.  In graphic terms, the steel hull of a boat and the saline water that will corrode it without fail. The antioxidant ?  The paint on the hull that prevents saline water to attack the metal.   The thicker is the paint the better is the protection of the steel hull against corrosion. Several enzymes and small molecules can eliminate free radicals including phytonutrients and vitamins E and C (8).  During aging, the generation of free radicals increases and quantity becomes greater than the capacity of the antioxidant defenses.  This imbalance is called oxidative stress and will lead the body to to a pathological condition (9).  A high consumption in antioxidants may greatly mitigate the impact of the oxidative stress.



I.2  Oxidant / Antioxidant

By definition, there is a low concentration substance compared to the oxidizable substrate, able to delay or stop the oxidation of the substrate.  In graphic terms, the steel hull of a boat and the saline water that will corrode its haul without fail.  The antioxidant?

 The paint that prevent salt water to attack the metal.  More protective and thick is the paint, better is the protection (antioxidant) of the steel against corrosion.

In science antioxidants were classified into three groups, namely:

  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Phytochemicals (phytoantioxidants).

In a balanced meal, we easily found the three groups of antioxidants but most dietary supplements contain synthetic antioxidants.  By cons, it seems that antioxidants from food sources have a much higher bio activity than supplements from synthetic extracts.  This is due firstly to the fact that foods contain a greater heterogeneity of antioxidants and secondly; synthetic antioxidants are less well absorbed by the human body.

Antioxidants are classified into 4 categories:
–  Carotenoids
–  Vitamins,
–  Oligo elements
–  Polyphenols


I.3  Classification of major classes of antioxidants

I.3.1  Polyphenols


Polyphenols are chemical compounds naturally present in plants, especially in the nordic small berries. There are more than 8,000 different phenolic molecules ranging from single molecules such as phenolic acids to much more complicated molecules (tannins) and others that can be tided with sugars, proteins and even lipids.  Among the polyphenols are the flavonoids, which represent the main group of this series.  In fact flavonoids are present throughout the plant kingdom, with the exception of fungi and algae.  They are derivatives of hydrosolubes polyphenols (soluble in water), often colorless or yellow with exceptions such as anthocyanins.  Flavonoids constitute in themselves an extremely broad family compounds playing important physiological roles (nutritional, medicinal, UV filters, etc,).  They are heavily present in small Quebec fruits and are of a particular interest to human health.  They are subject to many medicinal claims, particularly for their high antioxidant capacity.

I.3.2  Flavonoids

Flavonoids are themselves classified according to their degree of oxidation into subgroups such as:

  • Flavonols
  • Flavones
  • Flavanols
  • Isolflavones
  • Proanthocyanidins (flavanoids as anthocyanidins/anthocyanins)
  • Anthocyanidins (anthocyanins)

Flavanols and their polymeric condensation products, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) are a group of plant polyphenols responsible for many bitter and astringent flavors in food products such as wine, chocolate, beer, wild blueberries and cranberries (Peleg and others 1999).

Aside from their potential health benefits to the consumer, flavonoids are responsible for a wide variety of colors in many fruit and vegetable food products.  Catechins and proanthocyanidins significantly contribute to the preferred color and taste of dark chocolate, aged wines, cranberries, blueberries and teas.


 I.3.3  Isoflavones

soy-isoflavonesIsoflavones are compounds that are found mainly in vegetables and have been widely studied. Various legumes including soybean, chick pea, peanuts, green bean, alfalfa sprout cowpea and red clover blossom are rich in isoflavones.  Some derivatives of isoflavone are powerful agents against certain bacteria.  They have bacteriostatic properties.  The consumption of isoflavones-rich food is under study for its potential association with lower rates of postmenopausal cancer.

Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Isoflavones are also found in foods of animal origin such as dairy products, meat, eggs and seafood but the overall contribution to total intake is low.


 H.3.4  The proanthocyanidins (particularly concentrated in the case of cranberry/macrocarpon)

canneberge 3Even if it is not right to do so, proanthocyanidins fall under a wide range of names in the nutritional and scientific vernacular, including oligomeric proanthocyanidins, flavanoids, polyphenols, condensed tannins, PAC and OPCs.

Proanthocyanidins are flavanoids that serve among other chemical and induced defense mechanisms against plant pathogens and predators. Proanthocyanidins are present in fruits, bark, leaves and seeds of many plants, with their major function being the protection against microbial pathogens, insect pests and larger herbivores (Dixon et al., 2004). Proanthocyanins (PAC) are antioxidants with very strong protective power on human health.


I.3.5  The anthocyanins (especially concentrated in the wild blueberry / vaccinium antigustifolium)

ORAC selected foodsAnthocyanins are flavonoids that are found in plants and that give the characteristic color to the leaves, flowers and fruits. They are colored compounds (orange, purple to blue) and generally water-soluble. Unlike other flavonoids, anthocyanins absorb most of the time in the spectrum of ultra violet.  They are largely responsible of the coloring of the petals, but are also found in many plant tissues.  Their synthesis in leaf organs is often activated by stress (cold, deficiency, aging …).  Their compounds are frequently used as food colors and have antioxidant properties.

Anthocyanins have been studied for several biological activities including antioxidant capacity, the effect on the permeability and fragility of capillaries, the aggregation of blood platelets and the effect on collagen (Ref 5 W). The antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin is one of the most important biological properties. Epidemiological and biomedical research suggests that antioxidants contained in berries such as wild blueberry and macrocarpon cranberry can play a preventive role in the onset of certain diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. Anthocyanins and other flavonoids contribute substantially to total dietary antioxidants (ref 6 and 7 W).

The anthocyanins contained in the PC Urinary Formula would be natural antioxidants 20 times more effective than vitamins A and C.


J- The consumption of berry and its health effects

Petits fruitsWe already knew the benefits of a balanced diet of fruits and vegetables to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Canada’s Food Guide recommends eating between 8-10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Indeed, these consume recommended amounts reduces the risk of developing several diseases.  Quebec’s boreal forest, with over 850 species of vascular plants (10), is a rich source of compounds useful for the treatment and prevention of different diseases. Several plants of this vast ecosystem contain a high concentration of antioxidant compounds. The wild lowbush blueberry, cloudberry, cranberry macrocerpon and its close cousin the cranberry vitis-idaea are renowned for their high content of antioxidant compounds and, therefore, are often seen as references to this level.  Many studies show that the antioxidants found in boreal berries have remarkable protection properties (10-58).

Several studies have also shown that for a healthy person, the consumption of antioxidant-rich fruits reduced the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and diabetes (Ref 2, 3 W). Antioxidant also act as anti-aging. Since the publication of these results, phenolics fruits have been subject to numerous studies to enhance their nutritional and biological properties.  Thus, in recent years, several techniques have been proposed to concentrate and purify the antioxidants from fruits and even to produce synthetic compounds stressing that the consumption of fruit and berries allows a maintained balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants.

Although the berries are qualified small only by mass criteria or volume, studies show that these berries generally have much higher concentrations than other fruits with high nutritional value compounds, such as antioxidants, vitamins C and E. Wild blueberry and cranberry macrocarpon are two berries of a particular interest from a point of view organoleptic but mainly for medicinal potency due to their high very valuable antioxidant concentration.

Although the berries are qualified small only by mass criteria or volume, studies show that these berries generally have much higher concentrations than other fruits with high nutritional value compounds, such as antioxidants, vitamins C and E.  Wild blueberry and cranberry macrocarpon are two berries of a particular interest from a point of view organoleptic but mainly for medicinal potency due to their high very valuable antioxidant concentration.


K- Here are some key points about urinary tract

infection (U.T.I.)

  • 40-50% of women have at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime. 20-30% have a recurrent UTI (2 infections in 6 months, or more than 3 infections a year).
  • Women have a lifetime risk of over 50% of developing a urinary tract infection.
  • The majority of urinary tract infections are caused by the E. Coli bacterium.
  • Common symptoms include a strong, frequent urge to urinate and a painful and burning sensation when urinating.
  • Urinary tract infection is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and testing of a urine sample.
  • Urinary tract infections are commonly treated with antibiotics, although antibiotic use is also a risk factor for UTI.
  • Having diabetes increases the risk of UTI, as do the use of tampons and spermicides, frequent or intense sex, and sex with a new partner and/or multiple partners.
  • Uncomplicated urinary tract infections can be cured with 2-3 days of treatment.
  • Cranberry extracts do not treat UTIs, but may help reduce the risk of recurrent UTI.
  • Most young women with urinary tract infections have uncomplicated urinary tract infections.
  • Men with urinary tract infections should be presumed to have complicated urinary tract infections until it can be proven otherwise.
  • In severe cases, seriously ill patients with urinary tract infections may need to be hospitalized.
  • UTIs do not appear to be more common in pregnancy, but are more likely to lead to kidney infection and can be very dangerous for maternal and infant health.

Source: Medical news today

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Cautions and Warnings

Consult a health professional before using the product PC Formula Urinary if you take blood thinners, if you have suffered from kidney stones or if  symptoms persist or worsen.

  • Use PC Urinary Formula for at least four weeks in order to see better results.
  • The lifespan of the product recommended is 24 months.
  • The product must be refrigerated once opened bottle
  • Shake well before serving





















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(85) Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 Jun 26;123(13-14):1856-7.[Cloudberry: an important source of ellagic acid, an anti-oxidant].[Article in Norwegian]
Thiem BBerge V.


Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, K. Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Pozńa, Poland.


Cloudberry, Rubus chamaemorus L. (Rosaceae) is an herbaceous plant with a boreal, circumpolar distribution. Its fruit is of economic importance in northern Scandinavia; furthermore, this plant is of significance in Norwegian tradition. We present a review of its biology, secondary metabolites as well as cloudberry applications. The compounds of primary interest in cloudberry are vitamin C and ellagotannins with a high level of ellagic acid that exhibits biological activities. Ellagic acid, a dietary phenolic, offers considerable promise as anticarcinogen, antimutagen and antioxidant. The ellagic acid content in cloudberries could have health benefits. (86) J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Apr 13;59(7):3330-9. Epub 2011 Mar 4.Food grade lingonberry extract: polyphenolic composition and in vivo protective effect against oxidative stress.Mane CLoonis MJuhel CDufour CMalien-Aubert C.


CHR-Hansen-SAS, 92 avenue des Baronnes, 34730 Prades-le-Lez, France.


Fractionation of the polyphenols constituting a food grade lingonberry extract (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) highlighted a composition more complex than described until now in the berry. Procyanidins B1, B2, and A2 were identified by UPLC/ESI-MS(2) along with the presence of other flavanol oligomers. Processing induced the release of large amounts of aglycones for ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and quercetin. The described anthocyanic composition of lingonberry was completed with hexoside derivatives of peonidin, petunidin, malvidin, and delphinidin. Besides confirmation of in vitro antioxidant activity, in vivo study was performed on rats fed a diet inducing oxidative stress. Supplementation with lingonberry extract significantly decreased the total oxidant status and favorably affected antioxidant defense enzymes in red blood cells and liver. A drop in the serum reduced glutathione level was also prevented, and uric acid was maintained at low level, confirming the antioxidant activity of the extract (5% proanthocyanidins) from a dosage of 23 mg/kg of body weight.  (W)  Dr Wassef Ben Ounis, phd